Bluetongue disease is non-contagious, vector borne, viral disease mainly of sheep but also of other domestic and wild ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) belongs to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus and is characterized by segmented double-stranded RNA. Virus is transmitted from one to another susceptible animal by hematophagous insects of the genus Culicoides. According to offi cial data, between 2002 and 2014, Serbia has belonged to BTV free countries. Aft er that, the fi rst outbreak occurred in August 2014. Th e last case was reported in December of the same year. During 2015, 74 samples were examined for exclusion of bluetongue disease: 8 in cattle, 65 in sheep and one in goat. In order to detect viral genome, 73 blood samples and one tissue sample were examined by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). None of tested samples was confi rmed to be BTV positive. Following the Instruction of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection - Veterinary Directorate, monitoring program for Bluetongue disease in Serbia started from October 2015. The program consists of insect identifi cation and detection of viral genome in Culicoides spp. by RT-PCR assay. Of the 80 samples that were received during the program realization in 2015, only four, which were collected during late autumn, have contained insects of Culicoides spp. In none of them, BTV was detected. For diff erential diagnosis, 65 ovine blood samples were examined for the presence of viruses of contagious ecthyma, sheep and goat pox as well as eight bovine blood samples were tested for viruses of bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis / pustular vulvovaginitis and malignant catarrhal fever. Th e samples were analyzed using molecular methods (PCR and RT-PCR). Only two bovine blood samples gave positive reaction for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus.
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