A poxvirus named carp edema virus (CEV), is the causative agent of carp edema virus disease (CEVD), which is an emerging disease of global concern that may cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in ornamental koi and common carp and. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the most important fish species for warm‐water aquaculture in Serbia. CEVD was first time detected in Serbia in 2017. During 2017-2020 period, increasing number of CEVD outbreaks in carp farms is reported. Carp were collected from farms in different regions of Serbia from 2017 to 2020. The fish were sampled for disease diagnosis because they exhibited lethargy and anorexia, which eventually led to mortality. Mortality started with clinical signs of hypoxia while fish swam slowly without escaping reactions. The gills were pale and covered with a thick mucus layer. In advanced cases, the lesions in the gills turned into a necrotizing form. A moderate to high amount of opportunistic freshwater bacteria were isolated from gills of diseased fish. By performing real-time PCR, CEV was detected in 38 samples of diseased carps from 21 carp farms. These outbreaks further confirm the spread of CEVD and the need for practitioners to be vigilant for outbreaks of this disease. To prevent further spreading of the disease, it is very important to introduce CEV testing before fish movement. To avoid further transmission of the virus to common carp populations in Serbia, testing of CEV should become part of fish disease surveillance programs. Fish health service should be aware of the presence of CEV in Serbia which may result in high losses in carp aquaculture. Action should be taken also to prevent transmission of CEV to carp populations in open waters.
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