Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens. Th ese bacteria have the ability to colonize animals and
cross species barriers. Th ree major groups of MRSA strains have emerged. Healthcare associated MRSA and community acquired MRSA strains have potential to spread worldwide and oft en persist in hospitals and communities as clonal strains. Th e livestock-associated MRSA has been isolated from healthy human carriers but also from infected patients all around the world. Molecular typing of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), multilocus sequence typing in combination with pulse fi eld gel electrophoresis and spa typing are most frequently used for genetic characterization of MRSA strains. Th e community-acquired MRSA strains are capable of producing Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) cytotoxin which is their major virulence determinant. MRSA strains possess a number of virulence factors that are common in other bacteria and it is still not entirely explained which virulence factors or mechanisms of their regulation are important for the pathogenic potential, persistence in the environment or the ability to cause detrimental infection in patients. Recently, as a contribution to the progress of molecular biology, peculiar mechanisms of genetic regulation of virulence genes have been discovered and their role in pathogenesis of infection and epidemiology of MRSA has been studied.
Arhives of Veterinary Medicine is an Open Access Journal.