African swine fever (ASF) is currently the most important challenge for domestic pig production worldwide. The virus reached Eurasia in 2007, and is today affecting more than half of European Union member countries. Among Western Balkan countries, Serbia suffered the first case of ASF in a backyard holding in 2019. Since then, numerous outbreaks in domestic pigs and wild boar have been reported throughout the country despite the efforts of the veterinary authorities to control the disease. The lack of an effective vaccine is one of the main constraints, and the only currently available option to prevent further ASF infections is the application of strict biosecurity measures. Regarding biosecurity, backyard pig producers and smallholding farmers in Serbia have substantial gaps in the knowledge and fail to comply with safe production behaviour that favours the spread of ASF virus. In the currently prevailing smallholder and backyards farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. The aim of this review was to identify specific ASF-risks factors in the current pig production system and gaps in biosecurity measures related to the human activities recognised as social and cultural identity in Serbia. Moreover, the main risk factors for ASF spreading and transmission at the domestic/wild boar interface, biosecurity practices in different production systems, and possible future control measures and awareness campaigns are discussed.
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