Zoonotic diseases are increasingly becoming an emerging public health threat, partially due to the risk of spillover events at the human-wildlife interface. Their potential for infecting people with exotic pathogens originating from unusual pets should not be overlooked. The aim of the study is to present and analyze the trend of zoonoses in the 2015-2020 period using the descriptive method. The source of data is reports of single cases of infectious diseases, which is in accordance with the applicable legislation governing this area. The incidence of anthropozoonoses was the highest in 2017 amounting 16.5/100,000, while the lowest value in this five-year period was in 2020, with 1.1/100,000. The share of anthropozoonoses in the total incidence of infectious diseases was also the lowest in 2020, with the value of 0.02%, while the highest share of this group of diseases was recorded in 2017 with a value of 1.42%. In the specified period, the three most commonly reported anthropozoonoses are Q-febris, leptospirosis, and brucellosis. In 2020, the most frequently registered anthropozoonosis was toxoplasmosis, while in the previous 5 years, this disease was not reported among the three most common. It is necessary to raise awareness about the presence of zoonoses in the overall incidence of infectious diseases in the Republic of Srpska, because due to the common non-specific clinical picture, zoonoses are not the first to be considered in differential diagnosis. In the fight against zoonoses, a coordinated approach to "One Health" is necessary, which will enable design and implementation of programs, policies, legislation and research in the area of public health.
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