Antiviral activity in vitro of five selected indigenous plants against bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)
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In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of five selected plant extracts against Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1) subtype 1.1 and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) genotype 1, which with other viral and bacterial agents cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC). Ethanol (alcohol) and aqueous extracts were prepared for all five plant species studied. Two prepared samples of aqueous plant extracts/macerates had antiviral effect against BHV-1 as a representative of herpesvirus (DNA virus), but none of the samples showed an antiviral effect against BVDV genotype 1, a NADL strain, that belongs to RNA viruses. In our study, Selectivity Index (SI = CTC50/EC50) for aqueous extracts of Matricaria chamomilla (SI = 32) and Achillea millefolium (SI = ≥ 8) indicates a significant selective inhibition of DNA virus (BHV-1, strain TN41). On the basis of the obtained results, future research is needed, which would reveal the active ingredients of the investigated plants and mechanisms of their antiviral effect.