Detection of antibodies against lumpy skin disease virus by virus neutralization test and ELISA methods
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Infection of cattle with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is very important from the aspect of livestock production. Although it can cause significant economic losses, available serological assays are still not sufficiently efficient and reliable. A 3-day VNT was performed using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line and LSDV isolated from clinically infected cow to improve serological diagnostics of lumpy skin disease (LSD). In total, 325 cattle sera samples were tested in order to compare the performances of VNT and ELISA. Tested samples originated from 125 cows before the occurrence of LSD in the Republic of Serbia and 200 tested samples originated from vaccinated cows. Sera samples from vaccinated cows were collected starting from the vaccination day to 4 months after vaccination. In 7 different time intervals after vaccination sampling was carried out in 20 cows originating from one herd and in 3 different time intervals in 20 cows originating from a different herd each time of sampling. Out of 200 samples from vaccinated cows, antibodies against LSDV were detected in 68 (34%) samples by VNT, and in 60 (30%) samples by ELISA. No positive finding was detected by VNT in samples collected before the occurrence of LSD in Serbia, while one positive finding was detected in the same samples by ELISA. The first presence of antibodies in vaccinated cattle was detected by both tests 20 days after vaccination, and the largest number of animals with antibodies against LSDV was detected 30 days after vaccination. Comparing the results obtained by VNT and ELISA, it was calculated that kappa index was 0.913. The specificity of VNT and ELISA was 100% and 99.2%, respectively. VNT is simpler to perform compared to the recommended virus neutralization test by the OIE and can improve LSD serological diagnostics with additional sensitivity testing.